Friday, 10 July 2020

Tall Tales

For all lovers of tall tales: Henry VIII was 6 feet 2 inches. England’s tallest king was Edward IV who was 6 feet 4 inches tall. By all accounts, William Wallace was also very tall. It's believed he was well over 6 feet tall. Beating them all was Tsar Peter the Great at 6 feet 8 inches tall. Among women, Mary Queen of Scots was almost 6 feet tall (very tall for a woman in the 16th century)

Monday, 6 July 2020

Saturday, 27 June 2020

Czech Heroine

On 28 June 1950 Milada Horáková, a heroine of the Czech resistance during World War II was executed by the Communists on trumped-up charges. https://www.private-prague-guide.com/article/milada-horakova/

Monday, 22 June 2020

Galileo

On 22 June 1633 Galileo was forced to recant his view that the Earth moves around the Sun, rather than the other way round. He spent the rest of his life under house arrest. Only 359 years later, in 1992 the Catholic Church admitted it was wrong. www.localhistories.org/galileo.html

Saturday, 20 June 2020

Lizzie Borden

On 20 June 1893, Lizzie Borden was acquitted of the murders of her father and stepmother although she was almost certainly guilty. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/why-19th-century-axe-murderer-lizzie-borden-was-found-not-guilty-180972707/

Thursday, 11 June 2020

Sugar rationing

Sugar rationing in the USA ended on 11 June 1947 (5 years after it started). I don't think I would have survived sugar rationing. (In Britain sugar rationing began in January 1940. It lasted until 1953).

Saturday, 30 May 2020

Joan of Arc

On 30 May 1431 that unfortunate woman Joan of Arc was burned to death. http://www.localhistories.org/joan.html

Sunday, 17 May 2020

First World War Myths

I grew up with myths about the First World War, especially the idea that British soldiers were lions led by donkeys. This BBC article debunks the myths: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-25776836

Tuesday, 12 May 2020

Thursday, 7 May 2020

Olympe de Gouges

Woman writer Olympe de Gouges was born on 7 May 1748. She was executed during the French Revolution for her radical views. https://www.olympedegouges.eu/

Female Entrepreneurs

Some famous women entrepreneurs www.localhistories.org/entrepreneurs.html 

Wednesday, 6 May 2020

Saturday, 2 May 2020

Eyam and the Plague

Most people in England have heard of the village of Eyam in Derbyshire. According to legend when plague struck the village the people heroically quarantined themselves to stop it spreading and most of them died. It's probably a myth. The village WAS quarantined but the evidence suggests the authorities imposed the quarantine. It also seems the wealthy villagers fled before the quarantine was imposed, leaving the poor to their fate

Catherine the Great

Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia was born on 2 May 1729 http://www.localhistories.org/catherine.html

Friday, 1 May 2020

Mayday

Welcome to May. It's probably named after Maia the Roman goddess who caused plants to grow. This is my history of Mayday: http://www.localhistories.org/mayday.html

Monday, 27 April 2020

Nichola de la Haye

In 1216 King John of England made a woman named Nichola (Nicola) de la Haye sheriff of Lincolnshire. Nicola was a female landowner. For more than 40 years she was also constable (person in charge of) Lincoln Cathedral. She defended the castle against a siege in 1191. She sounds like a formidable woman.

Mary Wollstonecraft

Famous writer Mary Wollstonecraft was born on 27 April 1759. She is known for her book A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) http://www.localhistories.org/wollstonecraft.html

Sunday, 26 April 2020

The Croydon Poisonings

In 1928-29 three people were poisoned with arsenic in the south London suburb of Croydon. On the evening of 26 April, 1928 after a meal 59 year old Edmund Duff fell ill and he died the next day 27 April. His death was, at first, attributed to natural causes. Then on 14 February 1929, Edmund Duff's sister-in-law Valerie Sidney fell ill. She died on 16 February 1929. The last victim was Violet Sidney, Valerie's mother. She fell ill and died on 5 March 1929.

Violet Sidney was buried but soon people became suspicious and her body and that of her daughter Valerie were exhumed on 22 March 1929. Both contained arsenic. The body of Edmund Duff was later exhumed and was also found to contain arsenic. The police investigated but nobody was ever charged.

The case is still a mystery but it shows that as late as the 1920s if you poisoned someone there was a good chance the death would be attributed to natural causes. It makes you wonder how many people got away with poisoning unwanted relatives.

Shakespeare

William Shakespeare was baptised on 26 April 1564. His actual date of birth is not certain but it was probably 23 April. (In those days the date of a child's baptism was recorded not the day of his birth). http://www.localhistories.org/shakespeare.html

Saturday, 25 April 2020

The Guillotine

On 25 April 1792 Nicolas Jacques Pelletier became the first person in France to be guillotined. But beheading devices were used in other parts of Europe much earlier. A beheading device was recorded in Dublin in 1307. http://www.localhistories.org/pun.html

Tuesday, 21 April 2020

Saturday, 18 April 2020

Laundromat

The first laundromat opened in Fort Worth, Texas on 18 April 1934 http://www.localhistories.org/washing.html

Thursday, 9 April 2020

Isambard Kingdom Brunel

Isambard Kingdom Brunel was born in Portsmouth on 9 April 1806. He was one of the greatest engineers of the 19th century. http://www.localhistories.org/brunel.html

Wednesday, 8 April 2020

Tuesday, 7 April 2020

Dick Turpin

Infamous highwayman Dick Turpin was hanged on 7 April 1770. Despite his image Turpin was a brutal thug. www.localhistories.org/highwaymen.html

Casino history

A history of online casinos www.localhistories.org/casinohistory1.html

Friday, 20 March 2020

Zip fastener

On 20 March 1913 Gideon Sundback patented the zip fastener. Well done Gideon. http://www.localhistories.org/clothes.html

Tunisia

Tunisia became independent from France on 20 March 1956 http:www.localhistories.org/tunisia.html

Monday, 16 March 2020

Las Vegas

Las Vegas was incorporated on 16 March 1911 http://www.localhistories.org/lasvegas.html

Caroline Herschel

Astronomer Caroline Herschel was born on 16 March 1750. She is sometimes overshadowed by her brother William Herschel but in her own day, she was just as famous. http://www.localhistories.org/caroline.html

Friday, 13 March 2020

Uranus

On 13 March 1781 the great astronomer William Herschel discovered a new planet, the first to be discovered since Ancient Times. The planet was eventually named Uranus. http://www.localhistories.org/herschel.html

Thursday, 12 March 2020

Canberra

Happy birthday Canberra. The foundation stone of the Australian capital was laid on 12 March 1913. http://www.localhistories.org/canberra.html

Wednesday, 11 March 2020

Ancient Toilets

In the ancient world people were capable of designing quite sophisticated toilets. Stone age farmers lived in a village at Skara Brae in the Orkney islands (Scotland). Some of their stone huts had drains built under them and some houses had cubicles over the drains. They may have been inside toilets. www.localhistories.org/toilets.html 

Self Raising Flour

Henry Jones patented self raising flour on 11 March 1845. It wasn't a very big invention but it made cooking easier so well done Henry. www.localhistories.org/food.html 

Tuesday, 10 March 2020

Plague

On 9 March 1562 Naples banned people from kissing in public to help stop the spread of the plague (they thought that was one way the plague spread). www.localhistories.org/plague.html 

Barbie

Barbie debuted at the American Toy Fair in New York on 9 March 1959 www.localhistories.org/toys.html 

History of Gambling

A history of gambling in the UK www.localhistories.org/gambling.html 

Monday, 9 March 2020

Yuri Gagarin

Happy birthday you share it with Yuri Gagarin the first man in space. You also share it with Amerigo Vespucci the great explorer who sailed along the coast of South America. www.localhistories.org/space.html

Friday, 6 March 2020

Toronto

Toronto was incorporated on 6 March 1834. Happy Toronto Day. www.localhistories.org/toronto.html 

Wednesday, 4 March 2020

Chicago

Happy birthday Chicago. (it was incorporated as a city on 4 March 1837). www.localhistories.org/chicago.html 

Tuesday, 3 March 2020

Alexander Graham Bell

Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone was born on 3 March 1847. http://www.localhistories.org/bell.html

Monday, 2 March 2020

Philadelphia

In 1681 King Charles II granted a large amount of land in North America to a Quaker named William Penn. He established the colony of Pennsylvania. Penn sailed to North America in 1682. When he arrived he founded the city of Philadelphia. www.localhistories.org/philadelphia.html

Thursday, 27 February 2020

Voting in Egypt

All men in Egypt were given the right to vote in 1923. Women in Egypt were allowed to vote in 1956. www.localhistories.org/vote.html 

19th Century Food

My video about food in the 19th century is 3 years old https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q97BiiNzwNU 

Wednesday, 26 February 2020

Christopher Marlowe

The great Elizabethan playwright Christopher Marlowe was baptised on 26 February 1564. We don't know the exact date of his birth because in those days they recorded the date of rhe baptism not the birth. www.localhistories.org/marlowe.html 

Tuesday, 25 February 2020

Pancake Day

Pancake Day was first recorded in 1439. People were supposed to fast certain foods during Lent. They made pancakes to use up eggs and butter before Lent. Pancake Day is also called Shrove Tuesday. To shrive meant to confess your sins. So people 'shrove' their sins before Lent. The word Lent was on old English word meaning lengthen because the days are getting longer.

Salem Witch Trials

In 1702 the General Court (legislature) of Massachusetts overturned the convictions for witchcraft in Salem and in 1711 they granted compensation to the relatives of the victims bringing the whole sorry episode to an end. In the early 18th century belief in witches died out. Finally, in 1992 a memorial was erected to those who were wrongly executed at Salem. www.localhistories.org/salem.html 

Monday, 24 February 2020

Nancy Astor

On 24 February Nancy Astor the first woman to take her seat in the House of Commons made her first speech. www.localhistories.org/vote.html 

Estonia

Saturday, 22 February 2020

The slave trade

The first country to abolish the slave trade was Denmark in 1792 (although the ban did not take effect until 1803). Britain followed in 1807. The USA abolished the slave trade in 1808. Other European countries followed. Sweden abolished the slave trade in 1813, The Netherlands in 1814, France in 1815 and Spain in 1820. Brazil ended the slave trade in 1851. www.localhistories.org/slavery.html 

George Washington

George Washington was born on 22 February 1732 www.localhistories.org/washingtonpres.html

Thursday, 20 February 2020

John Glenn

On 20 February 1962 John Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth www.localhistories/spacetime.html 

Wednesday, 19 February 2020

Darwin, Australia

On 19 February 1942 the Japanese bombed Darwin Australia www.localhistories.org/darwinaus.html 

Copernicus

The great astronomer Nicklaus Copernicus was born on 19 February 1473 www.localhistories.org/copernicus.html 

Tuesday, 18 February 2020

Monday, 17 February 2020

St Olga

Olga of Kiev was a formidable woman in the early Middle Ages https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rc25HATMSjI

Jigsaw Puzzles

John Spilsbury made the first jigsaw puzzle in 1767. He intended to teach geography by cutting maps into pieces but soon people began making jigsaws for entertainment.  www.localhistories.org/toys.html

The Assyrians

The Assyrians were a warlike people from the north of what is now Iraq. From about 880 BC to 612 BC they ruled a great empire in the Middle East. www.localhistories.org/assyrians.html

Saturday, 15 February 2020

Galileo

The great scientist Galileo was born on 15 February 1564 www.localhistories.org/galileo.html 

Friday, 14 February 2020

Wednesday, 12 February 2020

Tuesday, 11 February 2020

Friday, 7 February 2020

Thursday, 6 February 2020

Voting in Britain 1918

On 6 February 1918 a new law giving all men in Britain the vote received the royal assent. (Until then about 40% of men in Britain could not vote). The new law also gave the vote to women over 30. www.localhistories.org/vote.html 

Portchester Walk

This is a video I made about one of my favourite walks https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cZRHr3Zbi2Q 

Wednesday, 5 February 2020

Fleas

People used to believe that fleas appeared on 1 March. They used to keep their windows closed on that day to stop the fleas coming in their houses. There was a saying 'The Devil shakes a bag of fleas at every house on 1 March'.

Robert Peel

Robert Peel was born on 5 February 1788. He formed the first modern police force in Britain, in 1829. They were called bobbies or peelers after him. www.localhistories.org/police.html 

Tuesday, 4 February 2020

Toronto

In 1793 the first governor of Upper Canada, John Graves Simcoe founded a new town. He called the new town York in honor of the Duke of York and he made it the capital of Upper Canada. It's name was later changed to Toronto. www.localhistories.org/toronto.html

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka became independent on 4 February 1948 www.localhistories.org/srilanka.html

Monday, 3 February 2020

Leigh Park

Public lavatories

There were public lavatories in London in the Middle Ages but the first modern public lavatory in the city opened on 2 February 1852. It was for men. One for women opened on 11 February. www.localhistories.org/toilets.html

Saturday, 1 February 2020

Herbs

Bay leaves are native to the Mediterranean area. Bay was well known to the Greeks and the Romans, who held it in high regard. Bay was also a popular herb in the Middle Ages and for centuries bay was a medicine as well as a food. www.localhistories.org/herbs.html 

Friday, 31 January 2020

Medieval Towns

The thing that would strike us most about medieval towns would be their small size. By the time of the Domesday Book in 1086 London probably had a population of about 18,000. Winchester, the capital of England, probably had about 8,000 people. At that time a 'large' town, like Lincoln or Dublin had about 4,000 or 5,000 inhabitants and a 'medium sized' town, like Colchester had about 2,500 people. Many towns were much smaller. www.localhistories.org/towns.html

Women in the 20th Century

My video about women in the 20th century https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MlnOZNhGQ7A

Thursday, 30 January 2020

History of Firefighting

In the mid 17th century the only tools for fighting fire were buckets, hooks and hand held pumps. (Gunpowder could be used to blow up buildings and create fire breaks). However in 1672 Jan Van der Heiden invented a flexible leather hose with brass fittings. Van der Heiden also pioneered hand pumped fire engines to use with the hose. www.localhistories.org/firefighting.html

Calgary

In 1875, the Mounties built a fort. In 1876 it was named Fort Calgary after Calgary Bay in Scotland. The Scottish name is derived from the Gaelic words Cala-ghearridh meaning pasture by the bay. When a railway station was built near Fort Calgary in 1883 the little settlement grew rapidly. www.localhistories.org/calgary.html

Emsworth

My video about Emsworth in Hampshire https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cHIoE0EIpQ0

Wednesday, 29 January 2020

Caroline Herschel

Caroline Herschel was a famous astronomer. In 1846 she was given the Prussian Gold Medal for science. She was then 96. Caroline lived from 1750 to January 1848. She died at the age of 97. So even in those days some people did live to extreme old age. www.localhistories.org/caroline.html

Horndean, Hampshire

The charming village of Horndean in Hampshire https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R1-vfsWJHqk

Winnipeg

Winnipeg stands at the confluence of two rivers. Its name comes from native words meaning murky waters. The French built a fur trading post on the site in 1738 called Fort Rouge. However, the fort was later abandoned. Then in 1810, the North West Company built a new fort called Fort Gibraltar. Slowly the settlement grew and in 1873 Winnipeg was incorporated as a city.  

Tuesday, 28 January 2020

Pride and Prejudice

Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen was published on 28 January 1813 www.localhistories.org/austen.html 

Lego

Happy birthday lego, patented 28 January 1958 www.localhistories.org/toys.html

History of Poverty

I made a video about the history of poverty. Its a grim subject but I found it interesting. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=quNVFsfMrGI 

The City of Regina

The city of Regina was once a place called Pile O'Bones because of the bones left there by hunters. Then in 1882, the first settlers arrived at the site. The new settlement grew rapidly and it was renamed Regina (Latin for queen) for Queen Victoria. www.localhistories.org/regina.html 

Monday, 27 January 2020

Blendworth, Hampshire

Egyptian Surgery

In Ancient Egypt surgeons treated wounds and broken bones and dealt with boils and abscesses. Egyptian surgeons used clamps, sutures and cauterization. They had surgical instruments like probes, saws, forceps, scalpels and scissors.
They also knew that honey helped to prevent wounds becoming infected. (It is a natural antiseptic). They also dressed wounds with willow bark, which has the same effect. www.localhistories.org/surger y.html 

Southampton City

My video of the city of Southampton https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4UgUROF6GFY 

Edmonton

The great Canadian city of Edmonton began as a trading post called Fort Edmonton, built in 1795. It was named after Edmonton in England, which was then a town north of London. However in the late 19th century the settlement began to spread outside the fort. Then in 1892 Edmonton was incorporated as a town and in 1904 it was incorporated as a city. Despite its small size Edmonton was chosen to be the capital of Alberta in 1905.  www.localhistories.org/edmonton.html 

Friday, 24 January 2020

Yorkshire Pudding

And some totally useless information: A Yorkshire pudding was originally called a dripping pudding. In 1747 a woman named Hannah Glasse, who was famous for her books on cookery, called it a Yorkshire pudding. She was the first recorded person to call it that. It sounds much nicer than 'dripping pudding' so thank you Hannah. www.localhistories.org/food.html

Thursday, 23 January 2020

History of Brazil

The Portuguese discovered Brazil by accident. Pedro Alvares Cabral landed on 23 April 1500. Then, in 1501 Amerigo Vespucci led another expedition to the new land. However at first the Portuguese showed little interest in Brazil although merchants set up coastal trading stations and they exported Brazil wood. www.localhistories.org/brazil

Wednesday, 22 January 2020

The Guillotine

On 21 January 1790 in France Dr Joseph Guillotin proposed a new humane device for executing people by slicing their head off. However the idea was not new, a mechanical device for beheading people was recorded in Dublin in 1307. www.localhistories.org/pun.html

New York

The Dutch built a little town on the southern tip of Manhattan Island. It was called New Amsterdam and it flourished by selling skins. The settlers sold otter, beaver, mink and seal skins. However, New Amsterdam was a tiny town with only about 1,500 inhabitants in the mid-17th century. However, some farmers cultivated the land in Manhattan and in Brooklyn. (The Bowery takes its name from Bouwerie the Dutch word for farm). www.localhistories.org/newyork.html

Monday, 20 January 2020

Saturday, 18 January 2020

Friday, 17 January 2020

Wednesday, 15 January 2020

Tuesday, 14 January 2020

Women in the Ancient World

My video about women in the Ancient World https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rzEKaRrxduI

Egyptian cosmetics

A history of cosmeticsThe Egyptians are known for their cleanliness (they bathed frequently) and they used many cosmetics. They used black eyeliner and green pigment for their eyelids. They also used rouge for their cheeks. The Egyptians also used perfume.  http://www.localhistories.org/cosmetics.html

Wickham, Hampshire

My video about Wickham in Hampshire https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LugkbClUDyI

Monday, 13 January 2020

History of England

A brief history of England http://www.localhistories.org/england.html

Myths About Corsets

Women's Boxing

Women's boxing has a long history. It was popular in England in the 18th century. https://allthatsinteresting.com/womens-boxing-history

Women's Education

There have always been some educated women. In the past, generally, upper class women were well educated. Middle class women often had some education. But poor girls like poor boys had little or no access to education. In Ancient Egypt, some girls taught to read and write.Upper class women were often well educated. There were some women doctors in Ancient Egypt. Merit Ptah was a famous woman doctor who lived around 2,700 BC. The Ancient Egyptians had a goddess of reading, writing, and arithmetic. Her name was Seshat. In Ancient Greece too some girls were taught to read and write. Women from wealthy families are often well educated. In Rome, many girls were taught to read and write at school. Upper class women were often educated. www.localhistories.org/womensed.html 

Women's Underwear

Ancient Greek women wore a form of bra called an apodesme. Both Roman men and women wore a loincloth or shorts called subligaculum. Women also wore a band of cloth or leather around their chest called a strophium or mamilare. www.localhistories.org/womenund.html 

Saturday, 11 January 2020

Cardiff

Cardiff began as a Roman fort. The Romans invaded Wales about 50 AD and about 55 AD they built a fort on the site of Cardiff. In the late 1st century the fort was reduced in size as Wales was now at peace.
However in the mid-3rd century the fort was rebuilt and strengthened to defend South Wales against Irish raiders. Yet in the fourth century Roman civilisation declined. Towards the end of the century the Romans abandoned the fort at Cardiff. www.localhistories.org/Cardiff.html 

Female Gladiators

Shoes

In the Middle Ages shoe makers were called cordwainers. The word is derived from cordovan the name for leather from Cordova in Spain. www.localhistories.org/shoes.html 

Friday, 10 January 2020

Women Doctors

I wrote a little history of women doctors www.localhistories.org/womendocs.html

Sheffield

Sheffield takes its name from the River Sheaf. It was once called the Sceaf, which means border so it was the border river. Sheffield was founded in the early 12th century by the Lord of the manor, William de Lovetot. He built a castle on the site of Castle Market. It was on an easily defended site as it had a river on the north and east. The castle had a moat on the south and west. In 1266 rebels burned Sheffield castle but it was rebuilt in 1270. The Lord also built a church on the site of Sheffield Cathedral. A little town grew up between the castle and the church. That often happened in the Middle Ages. The garrison of the castle provided a market for the townspeople's goods.  www.localhistories.org/sheffield.html 

Thursday, 9 January 2020

Edinburgh

Edinburgh began as a fort. Castle Rock is an easily defended position so from the earliest times it was the site of a fort. In the 7th century, the English captured this part of Scotland and they called this place Eiden's burgh (burgh is an old word for fort). In the 10th century, the Scots re-captured the area. Late in the 11th century, King Malcolm III built a castle on Castle Rock and a small town grew up nearby. By the early 12th century Edinburgh was a flourishing community. www.localhistories.org/edinburgh.html

Bellona

The Romans had a god of war called Mars, but they also had a goddess of war called Bellona. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q8nBdh4Ahu0

Wednesday, 8 January 2020

Lindisfarne

On 8 January 793 the Vikings attacked the monastery at Lindisfarne in Northeast England. It was the beginning of 200 years of Viking raids. www.localhistories.org/vikings.html  

History of Gardening

In the hot and arid climate of ancient Egypt rich people liked to rest in the shade of trees. They created gardens enclosed by walls with trees planted with trees in rows. Sometimes the Egyptians planted alternating species. They grew trees like sycamores, date palms, fig trees, nut trees, and pomegranate trees. They also grew willows. www.localhistories.org/gardening.html 

Tuesday, 7 January 2020

Medieval towns

It's a myth that in the Middle Ages the streets of towns were very dirty. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EnnHXtbct1E 

Portchester

My video about the history of Portchester https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kI8uTcq3Y3o

Galileo

On 7 January 1610 Galileo announced his discovery of four moons orbiting Jupiter www.localhistories.org/galileo.html

Monday, 6 January 2020

Liverpool

Liverpool began as a tidal pool next to the River Mersey. It was probably called the lifer pol meaning muddy pool. There may have been a hamlet at Liverpool before the town was founded in the 13th century. It is not mentioned in the Domesday Book (1086) but it may have been too small to merit a mention of its own. King John founded the port of Liverpool in 1207. The English had recently conquered Ireland and John needed another port to send men and supplies across the Irish Sea. John started a weekly market by the pool. In those days there were very few shops so if you wanted to buy or sell goods you had to go to a market. Once a market was up and running at Liverpool craftsmen and tradesmen would come to live in the area. www.localhistories.org/liverpool.html

Joan of Arc

According to tradition Joan of Arc was born on 6 January 1412 www.localhistories.org/joan.html 

East Meon

My video about the history of East Meon in Hampshire https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7_3dUoojCmU

Saturday, 4 January 2020

Myths about the Middle Ages

This is my video about myths about the Middle Ages https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_xNlwU2_rGs

Braille

Louis Braille, the man who invented a system of writing for the blind was born on 4 January 1809 www.localhistories.org/communications.html 

Friday, 3 January 2020

Alaska

On 3 January 1959 Alaska became the 49th state of the union www.localhistories.org/alaska.html

Thursday, 2 January 2020

History of Women's Clothes

Inca women made clothes from wool or (in warmer areas) from cotton. Ordinary people wore coarse alpaca wool but nobles wore fine vicuna wool. Inca women wore a long dress with a cloak on top fastened with a brooch. www.localhistories.org/womensclothes.html

History of Shoes

In the 15th century rich people wore shoes with long pointed toes. They were called crakows because they were believed to have originated in Krakow. (However only the upper classes wore them. Ordinary people had shoes with round toes). However at the end of the 15th century long toes went out of fashion and the wealthy began to wear shoes with square or round toes. www.localhistories.org/shoes.html